Cyberbullying and Children’s Mental Health
Before the Internet, bullying mostly happened in person. Kids were bullied at the bus stop, at recess or in the lunch line. But once a child got home, the bullying stopped. Now with increasingly advanced technology, online bullying, or cyberbullying, can happen anywhere at any time.
According to Sherri Gordon at VeryWellFamily, bullying—including Cyberbullying—causes significant emotional, psychological, and physical distress. Just like any other victim of bullying, cyberbullied kids experience anxiety, fear, depression, and low self-esteem. They also may experience physical symptoms, mental health issues, and struggle academically.
In the professional journal Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, Vol. 23, No. 2, the authors Irene Kwan et al. stated that Cyberbullying is associated with considerable negative mental and psychosocial consequences in children and young people, making it a serious public health concern.
According to KidsHealth Behavioral Health Experts, bullies have been around forever, but technology now gives them a whole new platform for their actions. Real-world and online name-calling both can have serious emotional consequences for our kids and teens.
It’s not always easy to know how and when to step in as a parent. For starters, most kids use technology differently than we do. They are playing games online and sending texts on their phones at an early age, and most teens have devices that keep them constantly connected to the Internet. Their knowledge of the digital world can be intimidating to parents.
But staying involved in kids’ cyber world, just as in their real world, can help parents protect them from its dangers. As awareness of cyberbullying has grown, parents have learned more about how to deal with it. Here are some suggestions on what to do if this modern type of bullying has become part of your child’s life.
What is Cyberbullying?
Cyberbullying is the use of technology to harass, threaten, embarrass, or target another person. By definition, it occurs among young people. When an adult is involved, it may meet the definition of cyber-harassment or cyberstalking, a crime that can have legal consequences and involve jail time.
Sometimes cyberbullying can be easy to spot — for example, if your child shows you a text, tweet, or response on Facebook that is harsh, mean, or cruel. Other acts are less obvious, like impersonating a victim online or posting personal information, photos, or videos to hurt or embarrass another person. Some kids report that a fake account, webpage, or online persona has been created with the sole intention to harass and bully.
Cyberbullying also can happen accidentally. The impersonal nature of text messages, IMs, and emails makes it very hard to detect the sender’s tone — one person’s joke could be another’s hurtful insult. Still, a repeated pattern of emails, texts, and online posts is rarely an accident.
Because many kids are reluctant to report being bullied, even to their parents, it’s impossible to know just how many are affected. But in some studies, more than half of the teens surveyed said that they have experienced abuse through social media and digital media.
Modern-day bullying can happen at home as well as at school — essentially 24 hours a day. Picked-on kids can feel like they are getting blasted nonstop and that there is no escape. As long as kids have access to a phone, computer, or another device, they are at risk.
Severe, long-term, or frequent cyberbullying can leave both victims and bullies at greater risk for anxiety, depression, and other stress-related disorders. In some rare but highly publicized cases, some kids have turned to suicide. Experts say that kids who are bullied — and the bullies themselves — are at a higher risk for suicidal thoughts, attempts, and completed suicides.
The punishment for cyberbullies can include being suspended from school or kicked off of sports teams. Some types of cyberbullying can be considered crimes.
What are the Signs of Cyberbullying?
Many kids and teens who are cyberbullied don’t want to tell a teacher or parent, often because they feel ashamed of the social stigma or fear that their computer privileges will be taken away at home.
Signs of cyberbullying vary, but may include:
- being emotionally upset during or after using the Internet or the phone
- being very secretive or protective of one’s digital life
- withdrawal from family members, friends, and activities
- avoiding school or group gatherings
- slipping grades and “acting out” in anger at home
- changes in mood, behavior, sleep, or appetite
- wanting to stop using the computer or device
- being nervous or jumpy when getting an instant message, text, or email
- avoiding discussions about computer or phone activities
What can Parents do?
If your child is being cyberbullied, offer comfort and support. Talking about any bullying experiences you had in your childhood might help your child feel less alone.
Let your child know that it’s not their fault, and that bullying says more about the bully than the victim. Praise your child for doing the right thing by talking to you about it. Remind your child that he/she is not alone — a lot of people get bullied at some point. Reassure your child that you will figure out what to do about it together.
Let someone at school (the principal, school nurse, or a counselor or teacher) know about the situation. Many schools, school districts, and after-school clubs have rules in place to deal with cyberbullying; these vary by district and state. But before reporting the problem, let your child know that you plan to do so, so that you can work out a plan that makes you both feel comfortable.
Encourage your child not to respond to cyberbullying, because doing so just fuels the fire and makes the situation worse. But do keep the threatening messages, pictures, and texts. These can be used as evidence with the bully’s parents, school, employer, or even the police. You may want to take, save, and print screenshots of these to have for the future.
Other things about Cyberbullying and Children to try:
- Block the bully. Most devices have settings that let you electronically block emails, IMs, or texts from specific people.
- Limit access to technology. Although it’s hurtful, many kids who are bullied can’t resist the temptation to check websites or phones to see if there are new messages. Keep the computer in a public place in the house (no laptops in children’s bedrooms, for example) and put limits on the use of cellphones and games. Some companies let you turn off text messaging services during certain hours. And most websites and smartphones include parental control options that give parents access to their kids’ messages and online life.
- Know your kids’ online world. Ask to “friend” or “follow” your child on social media sites, but do not abuse this privilege by commenting or posting anything to their profile. Check their postings and the sites kids visit, and be aware of how they spend their time online. Talk to them about the importance of privacy and why it’s a bad idea to share personal information online, even with friends. Write up cellphone and social media contracts that you are willing to enforce.
- Learn about ways to keep your kids safe online. Encourage them to safeguard passwords and to never post their address or whereabouts when out and about.
If your son or daughter agrees, you may also arrange for mediation with a therapist or counselor at school who can work with your child and/or the bully.
When your Child is the Bully…
Finding out that your kid is the one who is behaving badly can be upsetting and heartbreaking. It’s important to address the problem and not wait for it to go away.
Talk to your child firmly about their actions and explain the negative impact it has on others. Joking and teasing might seem harmless to one person, but it can be hurtful to another. Bullying — in any form — is unacceptable. And there can be serious (and sometimes permanent) consequences at home, school, and in the community if it continues.
Remind your child that the use of smartphones, computers, and other devices is a privilege rather than a right. Sometimes it helps to restrict their use until behavior improves. If you feel your child should have a cellphone for safety reasons, make sure it is a phone that can be used only for emergencies. Set strict parental controls on all devices.
Talking to teachers, guidance counselors, and other school officials can help identify situations that lead a kid to bully others. If your child has trouble managing anger, talk to a therapist about helping them learn to cope with anger, hurt, frustration, and other strong emotions in a healthy way. Professional counseling also can help improve kids’ confidence and social skills, which can reduce the risk of bullying. And don’t forget to set a good example yourself — model good online habits to help your kids understand the benefits and the dangers of life in the digital world.
This article is provided by Dr. Ralph Kueche (Child Psychologist). Dr. Kuechle is a Child and Adolescent Clinical Psychologist who specializes in treating children and their families who may be struggling with mood and behavioral issues. Learn more about Dr. Kuechle.